“The post-2015 development framework is likely to have the best development impact if it emerges from an
inclusive, open and transparent process with multistakeholder participation.” UN Secretary General’s
report released July 2011.

Between 1990 and 2013, Africa (excluding North Africa) reduced hunger by around 23% 4 countries (Ghana, Angola, Malawi and Rwanda) achieved the target in 2013, 6 are less than 10%, 29 with Marginal or moderate progress, whereas three had setbacks (Burundi, Comoros and Swaziland);

Generally, low agricultural productivity is an important factor constraining progress towards this target
Africa still far from reaching the hunger target.Halving the prevalence of underweight children under five years of age: still a daunting challenge.

Why is Africa not doing enough (though well)?

  • Africa’s performance on the MDGs has also been constrained by limited investment in social infrastructure, agricultural productivity and value addition, social services particularly, health education and sanitation;
  • ODA constitutes a small fraction of the resources required to achieve the MDGs in Africa. Closing the Gap in all LICs $73 billion in 2006, rising to $135 billion in 2015. To fill the financing gap, donors need to increase their ODA to 0.5% ( 0.3% of their GNI in 2013);
  • Per capita distribution of ODA: yields insights into the inadequate level of funding for the MDGs in Africa. On a per capita basis: 50$ in Africa, $200 in Caribbean, $300 in Latin America(UN, 2013).

Limited access to finances

  • Illicit financial resources from Africa estimated at about $854 billion over the 39 year period (1970–2008), which corresponds to a yearly average of about $22 billion (ECA 2012). This nearly equal to what Africa received as ODA in the same period;
  • Conflict and instability The early 1990s was also a period of elevated conflict and relative instability in Africa;
  • Infrastructure Gaps: Weak infrastructure has also slowed the continent’s progress on the MDGs. Africa’s low initial conditions are evidenced by its large infrastructure deficits estimated at $93 billion per year up to 2020 (reduces economic growth by 2% every year and undercuts business productivity by 40% (Qobo, 2014).

Inequality Falling but still a serious concern

Africa is the second most unequal region in the world, after Latin America, where the rich capture the largest part of national resources. The Gini index for 2000-2009 for Africa is 43.9 compared to 52.2 for Latin America and the

From MDGs approach to SDGs Framework

The MDGs linear Approach: Focus on Human development Goals, Omission the role of Economic Development
little consideration to the means of achieving these outcome targets, i.e. how income could be created or augmented for reducing or eradicating poverty.

Completing the cycle: A framework for SDGs: If the post-2015 agenda is to be more successful in achieving the
planned SDGs, it will need to encompass all of the following the elements.

Key lessons from MGD 1
  • Economic growth is essential for poverty reduction (though not sufficient in itself);
  • Proper alignment between national development priority and Globally set targets;
  • The largest contributions to poverty reduction come in the short run from increased productivity and increased labor demand in unskilled, labor-intensive, and often informal sectors. In the longer term, gains in poverty reduction and shared prosperity will require sustained improvements in productivity;
  • Structural transformation: inter-sectoral shift ( moving from low productivity sectors such agriculture to high productivity sectors. There evidence that the more labour moves industry, the faster the productivity);
  • Internal and External Resources Mobilization: renewed commitment and minimal ODA conditionalities is very important to achieve the SDGs Investment in infrastructure;
  • Address the inequality issues (countries with low levels of inequality have done better in meeting the MDGs);
  • Conflicts mitigation mechanisms;
  • Role of leadership is very important driver of the set targets.

Proposed SDGs

Goal 1: End poverty in all its forms everywhere

Goal 2: End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture

Goal 3: Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages

Goal 4: Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all

Goal 5: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls

Goal 6: Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all

Goal 7: Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all

Goal 8: Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all

Goal 9: Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation

Goal 10:Reduce inequality within and among countries

Goal 11: Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable

Goal 12: Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns

Goal 13: Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts

Goal 14. Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development

Goal 15: Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat
desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss

Goal 16: Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels

Goal 17: Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development

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